This was shown in the film, Resources at Risk: Philippine Coral Reef. Co-management efforts have integrated the field skills and traditional/indigenous knowledge of Alaska Native hunters with the scientific and technological expertise of agency scientists to enhance understanding of marine mammals including their stock structure, status, trends, movement and habitat-use patterns, responses to climate change, animal health and condition, contaminants, and disease. Federal agencies must consider effects that these projects would have on fish and wildlife development and provide for improvement of these resources. However, MPAs have been established in exclusive economic zones and in international waters. The National Marine Sanctuary System includes 13 national marine sanctuaries and five marine national monuments. The range of actions covered by NEPA is broad and includes: Adopting federal land management actions. As of 2013 30% of the world's reefs were severely damaged. An area containing both marine and terrestrial components, which can vary between two extremes; those that are predominantly maritime with little land (for example, an. On 7 April 1982, the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CAMLR Convention) came into force after discussions began in 1975 between parties of the then-current Antarctic Treaty to limit large-scale exploitation of krill by commercial fisheries. The MMPA was substantially amended in 1994 to provide: A statutory definition of the term "harassment" which is a prohibited activity and means: "any act of pursuit, torment, or annoyance, which -- has the potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild (Level A harassment); or has the potential to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering (Level B harassment).".  Such marine resources are protected by local, state, territorial, native, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. Other restrictions may limit the use of ultrasonic devices like sonar (which may confuse the guidance system of cetaceans), development, construction and the like. Locations, descriptions, and regulations of Canadas Oceans Act MPAs. San Francisco Bay marine protected areas are located within San Francisco Bay, from the Golden Gate Bridge northeast to the Carquinez Bridge. , "A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated, and managed, through legal or effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem service and cultural value. We share jurisdiction over several other species such as sea turtles and Atlantic salmon. Among other changes, the 1969 amendments expanded the act to include amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans. Today, the act reinforces other federal, state, and foreign wildlife protection laws by making it an offense to take, possess, transport, or sell wildlife that has been taken in violation of any law. The bay is the fifth and final study region for consideration under the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). The Reading Rock YRCA is an area off the northern California coast, between Crescent City and Eureka, intended to protect yelloweye rockfish. These large-scale MPAs should balance "the interests of conservationists, fishers, and the public. Most of the Philippines' MPAs are established to secure protection for its coral reef and sea grass habitats. Blue Parks are outstanding marine protected areas that safeguard ocean wildlife. Additional ongoing MSA reauthorization activities. which each provide specific restrictions. Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, John H. Prescott Marine Mammal Rescue Assistance Grant Program, takes of small numbers of marine mammals incidental to specified activities, access by Alaska Natives to marine mammal subsistence resources can be preserved, general authorization for scientific research, interactions between pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) and fisheries, Permitted directed take and import for scientific research, enhancement, commercial or educational photography, and public display, Take by Alaska natives for subsistence use, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Partner with other nations to ensure that international trade does not threaten species, Investigates and prosecutes violations of the MMPA, Indigenous People's Council for Marine Mammals, NEPA Magnuson-Stevens Act Procedures (PDF, 17 pages), Policy Revisions to Comply with Magnuson-Stevens Act, Learn More About the Laws That Drive Our Work, road map to guide implementation of the EBFM policy. , Southeast Asia is a global epicenter for marine diversity. 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